Pig iron is the product of smelting iron ore (also ilmenite) with a high-carbon fuel and reductant such as coke, usually with limestone as a flux. ... Pig iron is produced by smelting or iron ore in blast furnaces or by smelting ilmenite in electric furnaces. Read more
Blast furnaces produce pig iron from iron ore by the reducing action of carbon (supplied as coke) at a high temperature in the presence of a fluxing agent such as limestone.
The three main raw materials used to make pig iron (which is the raw material needed to make steel) for primary steel production in a blast furnace are the processed iron ore, coke (residue left after heating coal in the absence of air, generally containing up to 90% carbon) and limestone (CaCO3) or burnt lime (CaO), ...
The most common process is the use of a blast furnace to produce pig iron which is about 92-94% iron and 3-5% carbon with smaller amounts of other elements.
CAST IRON IS MADE FROM PIG IRON BY MELTING PIG IRON WITH IRON SCRAP AND COKE AND BY PASSING HOT AIT BLAST INTO THE MIXTURE. CAST IRON HAS 3% CARBON CONTENT LOWER THAN PIG IRON. CAST IRON IS HARD AND BRITTLE.
Manufacture of iron. Iron is produced by reduction of iron ore, which is often a mixture of oxides, using carbon, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. While the blast furnace is the dominant reduction process other technologies are emerging which operate on a smaller scale.
Primary steelmaking creates steel from a product called “pig iron.” Pig iron is smelted iron, from ore, which contains more carbon than is correct for steel. The steelmaker uses a system that bubbles oxygen through melting pig iron. This process creates equal oxidization throughout the molten metal.
Iron ore, coking coal, and limestone are added into the top of the blast furnace while heated air is blown into the bottom of the furnace to drive the combustion process. The combustion of iron ore with other materials in the blast furnace produces molten pig iron, which is then converted to steel.
Basic oxygen steelmaking is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron (the iron created in the blast furnace) is made into steel. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into low-carbon steel.
Steel is primarily produced using one of two methods: Blast Furnace or Electric Arc Furnace. The blast furnace is the first step in producing steel from iron oxides. ... The blast furnace uses coke, iron ore and limestone to produce pig iron. Coal traditionally has been a key part of the coke-making process.
Detailed Solution. A blast furnace is a type of furnace which converts a mixture of metallic ore, coke, and flux into liquid metal by introducing air under high pressure. The product of blast furnace is pig iron which is an intermediate product in the production of steel. It is also called crude iron.
Cast iron is an alloy with a high carbon content (at least 1.7% and usually 3.0–3.7%), making it relatively resistant to corrosion.
Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5 - 4.5%, therefore, it is an impure form of iron.
Pig iron, also known as crude iron, is an intermediate product of the iron industry in the production of steel which is obtained by smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. ... When the metal had cooled and hardened, the smaller ingots (the "pigs") were simply broken from the runner (the "sow"), hence the name "pig iron".
The main difference between cast iron and pig iron is that: (A) Cast iron is purest form of iron while pig iron is impure. (B) Cast iron has lower carbon content (3%) as compared to pig iron (4%) and is extremely hard and brittle. ... Along with carbon, Si, P and Mn are also present in pig iron as impurity.
Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace. ... The oxygen must be removed from the iron(III) oxide in order to leave the iron behind. Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called reduction reactions.
Pig iron is basically the by-product obtained from the process of making pure iron. High carbon fuel coke is used to heat the iron ore which produces a by-product with high carbon content. ... In comparison to steel and iron, pig iron (pig iron plants) has a lower melting point due to the presence of high carbon.
A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, Ni-resist iron and some bronzes.
Cast iron is made from pig iron, which is the product of melting iron ore in a blast furnace. Cast iron can be made directly from the molten pig iron or by re-melting pig iron, often along with substantial quantities of iron, steel, limestone, carbon (coke) and taking various steps to remove undesirable contaminants.
cupola furnace, in steelmaking, a vertical cylindrical furnace used for melting iron either for casting or for charging in other furnaces.
Composition of Pig iron
Pig iron contains about 90-95% of elemental iron together with several other elements mainly carbon, silicon, phosphorus, manganese, and sulfur – in varying proportions depending on the compositions of the raw materials and the mode of an operating blast furnace.
Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5–4.5%, along with silica, Manganese, Sulphur, Phosphorus, Titanium and other trace elements.
> The purest form of iron is Wrought iron.